Forecasting damage by root-feeding fly pests of brassica and onion

Forecasting systems to improve the management of root-feeding fly pests of brassica and onion crops were reviewed in an ERA-NET C-IPM project called FlyIPM Insects | Free Full-Text | The Potential for Decision Support Tools to Improve the Management of Root-Feeding Fly Pests of Vegetables in Western Europe (mdpi.com).  Forecasting systems have been developed for Delia radicum, D. floralis, D. platura and D. antiqua. All but one of the systems predict phenology rather than abundance; a forecast developed in Norway for D. floralis is based on a damage threshold. Degree-day forecasts have been developed in North America for D. radicum, D. platura, and D. antiqua, are presented on several advisory web sites in North America, and are available for use elsewhere. Simulation models have been developed for D. radicum in the UK and Germany, and there is a preliminary German model for D. antiqua.  A Norwegian degree-day model has been developed for D. radicum based on spring emergence and the oviposition period. A comparable degree-day model is available in Denmark and this can use local soil temperatures for individual postal code areas. All the models require current weather data and the degree-day models mainly use air temperature records. Both air and soil temperatures are used in the UK and German simulation models. The models or their outputs are disseminated in a number of ways.